The Physical Universe
An Introduction to Astronomy

Frank H. Shu
University of California, Berkeley

Color Plates from the First Printing

Most of the images may be viewed in a larger size by clicking on the thumbnail

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Color Plate 1.  An eruption 365,000 miles across on the Sun recorded by Skylab in the 304 ultraviolet light of ionized helium.  (NASA and the Naval Research Laboratory.)

Color Plate 2. A spectrum of the day sky which constitutes scattered sunlight.  The continuum from violet to red has superimposed on it dark absorption lines which are formed in the atmosphere of the Sun.
shuc3.jpg (19400 bytes) Color Plate 3.  Messier 16, the Eagle nebula in Serpens, containing an open cluster of stars.  (Copyright Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., The Kitt Peak National Observatory.)
shuc4.jpg (21848 bytes) Color Plate 4.  Messsier 45, the Pleiades stars and reflection nebulosity in Taurus.  (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc5.jpg (10326 bytes) Color Plate 5.  Messier 13, a globular cluster of stars in Hercules. (U.S. Naval Observatory.)

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Color Plate 6. Messier 42, the Great Nebula in Orion, a Galactic HII region.  (Copyright Association of the Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.  The Kitt Peak National Observatory.)

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Color Plate 7.  Messier 1, the Crab nebula in Taurus, a supernova remnant.  (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)

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Color Plate 8.  Messier 57, the Ring nebula in Lyra, a planetary nebulla. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)

 

shuc9.jpg (18911 bytes) Color Plate 9. Messier 31, the Great Galaxy in Andromeda, the closest large spiral galaxy to our own.  (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)

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Color Plate 10. Messier 32, a dwarf elliptical galaxy in the Local Group of galaxies. (U.S. Naval Observatory.)
shuc11.jpg (35348 bytes) Color Plate 11.  NGC5128, a peculiar elliptical galaxy in Centaurus; it is a source of intense radio emission. (Copyright Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, CTIO 4-meter photograph.)
shuc12.jpg (23829 bytes) Color Plate 12.  NGC 5907, an edge-on spiral galaxy in Draco.  (U.S. Naval Observatory.)
shuc13.jpg (27117 bytes) Color Plate 13. Messier 51, The Whirlpool Galaxy, a spiral galaxy in Canes Venatici seen nearly face-on.  It has a companion galaxy at the projection of one of its spiral arms.  (U.S. Naval Observatory.)
shuc14.jpg (71271 bytes) Color Plate 14. The Earth seen from  Apollo 17.  (NASA, Johnson Space Center.)
Color Plate 15. Apollo 16 astronaut Duke collects samples on the Moon with the Lunar Rover in the background.  (NASA, Jonson Space Center.)
shuc16.jpg (19397 bytes) Color Plate 16.  False-color closeup in ultraviolet light of Venus Cloud details by Mariner 10. (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc17.jpg (39403 bytes) Color Plate 17. A panoramic view of the Martian landscape taken by the Viking 1 lander.  Notice the trench on the lower right which was dug so that, among other experiments, the lander could test the Martian soil for possible biological activity. (NASA)
shuc18.jpg (14988 bytes) Color Plate 18. A closeup view of the turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere taken by Voyager 1.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc19.jpg (21368 bytes) Color Plate 19.  Huge volcanic eruptions were discovered by Voyager 1 on Io, one of the moons of Jupiter.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc20.jpg (9606 bytes) Color Plate 20.  A thick haze covers the surface of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.  Detailed analysis of Voyager 1 data revealed surprisingly that Titan's atmosphere was made mostly of molecular nitrogen, with a surface pressure somewhat larger than that of Earth and a surface temperature cold enough possibly to allow pools of liquid nitrogen in special locations.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc21.jpg (23149 bytes) Color Plate 21. An unusual comet, Comet Humason.  If funding can be found, scientists hope to fly a spacecraft in 1986 for a much closer view of Halley's comet.  (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc22.jpg (11041 bytes) Color Plate 22. A false-color X-ray image of the quasar OQ 172, which has the highest redshift, 3.53, yet known.  (NASA, courtesy of William Ku and Columbia University.)
shuc23.jpg (20989 bytes) Color Plate 23. The double quasar.  The left side of the image gives a false-color view of the system; the right side shows an imaged processed view after subtraction to reveal the presence of the intervening galaxy which presumably acts as the gravitational lens.  For details, see A. Stockton, Ap. J. Lett., 242, 1980, L141, and Chapter 15.  (Institute for Astronomy and Planetary Geosciences Data-Processing Facility, University of Hawaii.)
shuc24.jpg (9584 bytes) Color Plate 24.  A radiograph of M101 showing the distribution and velocity of atomic hydrogen in this Sc I galaxy.  Red denotes redshifts with respect to the center of the galaxy; blue, blueshifts.  (Kepteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen and the Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy; courtesy of Ronald J. Allen.)
shuc25.jpg (19489 bytes) Color Plate 25.  A false-color radiograph showing the distribution of atomic hydrogen gas in the spiral galaxy M81, the small irregular galaxy NGC 3077, and the streamer that connects the pair.  In this representation, green refers to the highest intensity of the neutral hydrogen emission.  (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen and the Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy; courtesy of Ronald J. Allen.)
shuc26.jpg (7088 bytes) Color Plate 26. An optical photograph of the irregular galaxy M82 in Ursa Major. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc27.jpg (12983 bytes) Color Plate 27. Messier 33, the third largest spiral galaxy in the Local Group after the Milky Way and M31. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc28.jpg (23053 bytes) Color Plate 28.  The central bulge of M31. (Copyright Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.  The Kitt Peak National Observatory.)
shuc29.jpg (40934 bytes) Color Plate 29. The Large Magellanic Cloud, a barred irregular galaxy which is a satellite of the Milky Way System. (Copyright Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.  The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, CTIO 61-cm Schmidt photograph.)
shuc30.jpg (29313 bytes) Color Plate 30.  Radiograph showing the distribution and velocity of atomic hydrogen gas present locally in our Galaxy.  (Courtesy of Carl Heiles and the Radio-Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.)
shuc31.jpg (23702 bytes) Color Plate 31.  A relatively wide-angle view of a portion of our Galaxy that includes the Horsehead nebula. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc32a.jpg (14964 bytes) Color Plate 32A..  The old and the new.  The stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri, NGC 5139 (Plate 32A) are over ten billion years old.  Contrast with Plate 32B, below, showing stars in the open cluster NGC 6231, which are relatively newly born from the surrounding gas and dust.  (Copyright Hans Vehrenberg)
shuc32b.jpg (12703 bytes) Color Plate 32B.  See caption for Plate 32A, above. (Copyright Hans Vehrenberg.)
shuc33.jpg (68641 bytes) Color Plate 33.  The Rosette nebula in Monoceros, a Galactic Hii region. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc34.jpg (34968 bytes) Color Plate 34. NGC7293, a planetary nebula in Aquarius. (Palomar Observatory photograph, copyright by the California Institute of Technology.)
shuc35.jpg (25249 bytes) Color Plate 35. False-color X-ray image of the Tycho supernova remnant. (Courtesy of Paul Gorenstein and the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.)
shuc36.jpg (17931 bytes) Color Plate 36.  False-color X-ray image of the Crab nebula and its pulsar. (Courtesy of Riccardo Giacconi and the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.)
shuc37.jpg (16737 bytes) Color Plate 37. An artist's rendition of the solar system.  The sizes of the sun and the nine planets are drawn to scale at the bottom. (Hansen Planetarium, Salt Lake City, Utah.)
shuc38.jpg (9355 bytes) Color Plate 38. Comet Bennett. (Courtesy of John C. Brandt and NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center.)
shuc39.jpg (11385 bytes) Color Plate 39. Saturn, when Voyager 1 was farther from the Sun than the planet was. (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc40.jpg (10305 bytes) Color Plate 40.  Saturn, when Voyager1 was closer to the sun than the planet was.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc41.jpg (8281 bytes) Color Plate 41. Jupiter with Io and Europa in the Foreground. (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuczz.gif (73717 bytes) Color Plate 42.  The Great Red Spot of Jupiter as photographed by Voyager 2.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc43.jpg (17867 bytes) Color Plate 43. A montage of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, showing their correct relative sizes.  Clockwise from upper left: Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede.  (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
shuc44.jpg (8287 bytes) Color Plate 44.  A two-color picture of Deimos, the smaller of the two satellites of Mars, generated from Viking 1 camera shots through a violet filter and an orange filter.  Deimos is believed to resemble most common asteroids.  (NASA).
shuc45.jpg (14032 bytes) Color Plate 45. View of the area near the Viking 1 Lander site on Mars.  (NASA).
shuc46.jpg (11330 bytes) Color Plate 46. Frosty scene near the north pole of Mars viewed in mid-summer by Viking Orbiter 2. (NASA).
shuc47.jpg (14872 bytes) Color Plate 47. Four false-color ultraviolet views of Venus by Pioneer Venus Orbiter.  The time sequence begins clockwise from lower left, and shows that the planet's clouds circle Venus completely once every four days, much faster than the rotation period of the planet.  (NASA, Ames Research Center).
shuc48.jpg (11825 bytes) Color Plate 48.  Eruption of the Sun viewed from Skylab at 304 .  (NASA and the Naval Research Laboratory.)
shuc49.jpg (18108 bytes) Color Plate 49.  The Moon viewed from Apollo 11.  (NASA, Johnson Space Center.)
shuc50.jpg (23304 bytes) Color Plate 50. The Earth rising over the Moon's horizon viewed by Apollo 8.  (NASA, Johnson Space Center.)