Exploring Genetic Mechanisms

Edited by Maxine Singer and Paul Berg

1. Mammalian DNA Viruses: Papovaviruses as Models of Cellular Genetic Functions and Oncogenesis, Paul Berg & Maxine Singer

1.1 Introduction
1.2 General Features of Mammalian DNA Viruses
1.3 SV40: The Best Understood Papovavirus
1.4 Other Papovaviruses
1.5 Comparative Strategies for Cellular Activation by Papova- and Adenoviruses
1.6 Conclusion

2. Eukaryotic RNA Viruses: A Variant Genetic System, Ellen G. Strauss and James H. Strauss

2.1 Replication Strategies of Eukaryotic RNA Viruses
2.2 Plus-Strand RNA Virus Genomes
2.3 Minus-Strand RNA Virus Genomes
2.4 Double-Strand RNA Virus Genomes
2.5 Manipulation of Cloned Viral Genomes
2.6 "Infectious Clones" and the Genetic Revolution
2.7 RNA Viruses as Vectors
2.8 Conclusion

3. Retroviruses: Infectious Genetic Elements, Stephen P. Goff

3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Replication-Competent Retroviruses: Practically Perfect Parasites
3.3 Genetic Analysis of Retroviral Replication Functions
3.4 Replication-Defective Transforming Viruses
3.5 Human Retroviruses
3.6 Gene Transfer and Gene Therapy
3.7 Conclusion

4. Oncogenes, Growth Suppressor Genes,and Cancer, Tony H unter

4.1 Oncogenes
4.2 The Functions of Oncogene Products
4.3 DNA Tumor Virus Oncoproteins and the Cell Cycle
4.4 Growth Suppressor Proteins
4.5 Cooperation Between Genetic Events in Tumorigenesis
4.6 Tumorigenesis in Humans
4.7 Viruses and Human Cancer
4.8 Conclusions and Prospects

5. Mapping Markers and Genes in the Human Genome, Ray White

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Variations in DNA Sequence: The New Genetic Markers
5.3 Analysis of Genetic Linkage in Humans
5.4 Linkage Maps of Human Chromosomes
5.5 Mapping and Isolating Genes Responsible for Human Diseases
5.6 DNA Sequence Variations as Markers in Somatic Cells
5.7 Conclusion: Genetics and Human Variation

6. Molecular Genetics of the Hemoglobin Genes, Haig H. Kazazian, Jr., and Stylianos Antonarakis

6.1 The Globin Genes and Proteins
6.2 Expression of Globin Genes
6.3 Molecular Basis of Hemoglobinophathies
6.4 DNA Polymorphisms in the Globin Gene Cluster and Their Use in Analysis of Disease-Producing Mutations

7. Generation of Antigen Receptor Diversity, Jianzhu Chen and Frederick W. Alt

7.1 Overview of the Immune System
7.2 Cell and Animal Models to Study B Cell Differentiation
7.3 Organization and Expression of Ig Genes
7.4 Mechanism of Antigen Receptor Variable Region Gene Assembly
7.5 Control of V(D)J Recombination
7.6 Modification of the Primary B Cell Antibody Repertoire
7.7 Conclusion

8. Biosynthesis of Intercellular Messenger Peptides, Maxine Singer and Paul Berg

8.1 The Special Properties of Intercellular Messenger Peptides and Their Genes
8.2 The Biochemistry of Cotranslational and Posttranslational Modifications and Proteolytic Processing
8.3 The Secretory Pathway
8.4 The alpha-Pheromone of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
8.5 Insulin: One Gene, Two Polypeptides, One Protein
8.6 Multiple Active Peptides from Single Genes by Differential Posttranslational Processing
8.7 Multiple Active Peptides from a Single Gene by Alternative Splicing: Calcitonin and CGRP
8.8 Messenger Peptides and Fixed Behavioral Patterns in Aplysia

9. Regulation of Early Drosophila Development by Transcription Factors and Cell-Cell Signaling, Thomas B. Kornberg and Matthew P. Scott

9.1 The Development Program of Drosophila
9.2 Maternal Influences on Developmental Events
9.3 Anterior-Posterior Patterning
9.4 The Roles of Transcription Factors in Early Development
9.5 Moleuclar Methods in Drosophila Developmental Genetics
9.6 Perspectives

10.Manipulating Protein Structure, Cynthia N. Kiser and John H. Richards

10.1 General Considerations
10.2 Protein Folding and Stability
10.3 Protein Function

11.Genetic Modification of Animals, Tim Stewart

11.1 Genetically Modified Rodents as an Experimental Tood
11.2 Transcription
11.3 Growth and Development
11.4 Immunology
11.5 Oncogenesis
11.6 Mutations
11.7 Models of Human Diseases

12.Genetic Modification of Plants, Patricia Zambryski

12.1 Agrobacterium-Plant Cell Interaction: General Concepts
12.2 Activation and Expression of Virulence Genes
12.3 DNA Transfer
12.4 Crown Gall Tumor
12.5 Ti-Plasmid as a Vector for Gene Transfer to Platns
12.6 Arabidopsis thaliana, a Model Plant System
12.7 Evolutionary Considerations and Floral Development