An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling

Second Edition

Warren Washington, NCAR

Claire Parkinson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


1 Introduction and Historical Development

 2 Physical Description of the Climate System

2.1 Atmosphere

2.2 Oceans

2.3 Sea Ice

2.4 Atmosphere/Ocean/Ice Interconnections

2.4.5 Impacts of the ice

3 Basic Model Equations

3.1 Fundamental Equations

3.2 Summary of the Basic Predictive Equations for the Atmosphere

3.3 Vertical Coordinate Systems

3.4 Atmospheric and Ocean Dynamics

3.5 Early General Atmospheric Circulation Model of the Atmosphere

3.6 Radiative and Cloud Processes

3.7 Surface Processes

3.8 Ocean Models

3.9 Sea Ice Models

3.10 River Transport

 4 Basic Methods of Solving Model Equations

4.1 Finite Differences

4.2 Finite Differencing in Two Dimensions

4.3 Spectral Method

4.4 Spherical Representation

4.5 Spectral Transform Technique

4.6 Vertical Representation

4.7 Lagrangian and Semi-Lagrangian Methods

4.8 Spectral Element Method 

5 Examples of Simulations of Present-Day Climate

5.1 Simulations of the Atmosphere

5.2 Simulations of the Ocean

5.3 Simulations of Sea Ice

5.4 Coupled Atmosphere, Land/Vegetation, Ocean, and Sea Ice Simulations

5.5 El Nino Simulations

5.6 Regional Climate Modeling

5.7 Modeling Groups

6. Climate Sensitivity Experiments

6.1 Sample Early Paleoclimate Simulations

6.2 Sample Later Paleoclimate Simulations

6.3 Sample Simulation of the Last Millennium

6.4 Sample Early Simulations of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation

6.5 Sample Later Simulation of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation

6.6 Research on the Climatic Effects of Increasing Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

6.7 Sample Early Climate Model Simulations of the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

6.8 Later Simulations of the Effects of Greenhouse Gases,
Aerosols, and Other Climate Forcings

6.9 Climate Modeling with the Carbon Cycle

6.10 Possible Climatic Effects Due to Nuclear War

6.11 Overview of Climate Sensitivity Studies

 7 Outlook for Future Developments

7.1 Climate Model Evolution and Status

7.2 Issues Involved in Coupling

7.3 Continuing Needs

7.4 Two Further Potential Uses of Climate Models

7.5 National Research Council Assessment

7.6 Concluding Remarks

A Vector Calculus

B Legendre Polynomials and Gaussian Quadrature

C Derivation of Energy Equations

D Unit Abbreviations

E Physical Constants in Systeme International (SI) Units,

and Typical Surface Albedos

F Conversions and Prefixes

G Greek Alphabet

H Acronyms

I Aerosols

J Solar Radiation, Including Effects of Aerosols

K Internet Sites for Climate Modeling and Climate Data

L Computer Architectures Used in Climate Modeling:

Definition of Terms